10th Important Notes – History and Political Science – Democracy

Democracy :
The term democracy refers to the rule of people either by themselves (Direct Democracy) or through their elected representatives (Indirect Democracy). Democracy is a way of life that respects the freedom of citizens, protects to the minorities and grants fundamental rights to the people. It is operated by means of tree and fair elections, conducted by an autonomous Election Commission, periodically. It is put into operation by political parties who put up candidates. Every eligible citizen, under the principle of universal adult franchise has right to vote. The government is voted in and voted out at periodical elections. Since it is not feasible to practise direct democracy, it is indirect or representative in modern states.
Parliamentary Democracy :
This form of democracy originated in England; wherein the King / Queen is the titular head and the powers are exercised by the Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister. The leader of the majority party / alliance in the elected house is appointed as the Prime Minister. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the legislature and can be removed by passing a vote of no-confidence. India, too, has adopted parliamentary system.
Presidential democracy :
This system originated in the USA and is based on the principle of separation of powers. The President is the head of the state as well as the government. He is directly elected by the citizens for a specific period. There is no provision for his removal by passing a vote of no-confidence. However, he can be impeached for the violation of the Constitution by the American Congress. France has semi-Presidential system.
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